6" x 12" Oil on Linen

The Mandan are a nation who lived in established permanent villages along the upper Missouri River consisting of commodious lodges made from stockaded logs and timbered roofs covered with a thick layer of soil.  The lodges housed multiple generations and were warm and reasonably tight, protecting the occupants from the bitter winds and snow in the upper Midwest as well as the blistering summer sun.  The poles extending from some lodges were spirit poles with effigies made from the possessions of departed family members.   They stood until the elements claimed the materials.  The Mandan were both farmers and buffalo hunters.  Corn and squash were the main crops.  They were huge traders and Western tribes journeyed from great distances to barter and trade.

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